Step 5 B: The Making of an Expert

The Making of an Expert: This article discusses new research about how people become “experts.”

After reading the article, discuss how “experts” are made in the comments section below. Think about a specific “expert” and describe how you think he or she developed that particular skill or ability.

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1,221 thoughts on “Step 5 B: The Making of an Expert

  1. Andrea Smith says:

    The making of an expert relies on intent practice, studying with a professional and support from the people around you. I would have to agree that the amount of practice and the quality of that practice are key factors to making an expert. When you practice it must be deliberate and you must think deliberately to gain insight into the unknown. Earlier in my life I spent hours practicing the guitar. Trying to do what the professionals did! Studying songwriting with talented songwriters, and learning the skills of songwriting from master teachers. I consider my brother an expert bassist. He plays in the symphonies and long ago he told me he loved the study of music because there was always something more to learn. He has practiced deliberately 2 hours a day for my lifetime. He has mastered his craft and is an “expert” within the professional circuits.

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  2. Loyda Ramos says:

    How englightining to read that experts are made not born. We always hear, leaders are born not made, similarly with “experts”. Experts have to work hard at what they do and put great effort. This statement from the article resonated with me ” Deliberate practice is different. It entails considerable, specific, and sustained efforts to do something you can’t do well—or even at all. Research across domains shows that it is only by working at what you can’t do that you turn into the expert you want to become. ” This statement is so true! When we try to learn something we are not good at, we take our time and put great effort into learning that particular skill.The article gave the example of someone learning golf for the first time. When learning to hit the golf ball into the hole, the first try does not give you any feedback. Yet, the second try, third, etc. gives you more feedback because you are deliberately perfecting and observing your own unique technique to try to get the ball into the hole. This deliberate practice is what helps you become an expert. With practice, it is also important to take you time and realize that its not a process that can be rushed. Similarly surrounding yourself with a mentor who is already an expert in this area another way of deliberately learning a new/unknown skill. I just really enjoyed reading about how an expert is made through practice, effort, patience, and time.

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  3. San Fernando High - Mettlen says:

    As the article states, “: All the superb performers he investigated had practiced intensively, had studied with devoted teachers, and had been supported enthusiastically by their families throughout their developing years. Later research building on Bloom’s pioneering study revealed that the amount and quality of practice were key factors in the level of expertise people achieved. Consistently and overwhelmingly, the evidence showed that experts are always made, not born.” This supports the idea of growth mindset being the basis for all of an experts hard work in their area or field of study. These experts worked extremely hard and had enormous support in reaching their goals. This reminds me of Serena Williams, the best tennis player in the world. She had a father that supported her and pusher her to do her best, he even coached her in the beginning. She trained with the best coaches and trainers, and had amazing support from her sister who challenged her to continually step up her game. With out all of this practice and hard work would Serena Williams be the person we know today?

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  4. laurenvaron says:

    The article states that “experts are made, not born.” In order to achieve expertise people must engage in deliberate practice, work with devoted teachers, and receive support from families. Tina Guo is an internationally acclaimed and Grammy-nominated cellist. She began studying music when she was 3 years old. She now works alongside Hans Zimmer and is a soloist for the scores of many movies. It’s clear that her expertise came from years of deliberate practice and support from her family who were also her first teachers.

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  5. S Duran says:

    After reading the article, I could remember the long hours my mother spent creating wedding gowns from scratch. She will look at the picture of a dress in a magazine, studied the lines and flow, and then, using newspaper, she will trace the dress as she thought the pieces will go together to mimic the dress in the magazine. She will use pins to put the newspaper pieces together and place the “dress” on the mannequin. She will compare it to the magazine, and if she felt it had the same look as that of the picture, she will then trace the pattern on cheap fabric. She will now show the dress to the bride, and ask the bride if that was the dress she had envisioned with the specified modifications. My mother will be hugged, and she will be paid the full price she quoted, plus many more customers. She was an expert at designing dresses, yet she never went to fashion & design school, or knew how to read until she was in her 50’s. But, she spent long hours tracing dresses, replicating what her mentors will do at their shops to please their customers with everyday dresses. She practice bridal pattern-making using newspapers (she couldn’t afford tracing paper) as much as she could until she felt confident on the bridal dress she was creating. She was an expert, because according to the article, “expertise must pass three tests. First, it must lead to performance that is consistently superior to that of the expert’s peers. Second, real expertise produces concrete results…Finally, true expertise can be replicated and measured in the lab. As the British scientist Lord Kelvin stated, “If you can not measure it, you can not improve it.” My mother opened a bridal shop and created bridal dresses for over 25 years until arthritis and osteoporosis gained the upper hand. She also trained students who attended fashion schools, but had heard of the local seamstress who created bridal gowns from scratch (she is my Vera Wang). She became an inspiration to those young designers, and her advice was practice with a goal in mind, and compare your patterns to something you have observed, and then add, substitute, or eliminate based on the client’s needs.

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  6. Experts are made from a lot of hard work. Even people who seems to be born with an innate talent practice extensively to become an expert. Eddie Mata is an expert to me in the field of teaching math. He sought out the best college to learn how to teach. I think he got lucky and had Jaime Escalante as his master teacher. He also works every summer to see how he can improve his lessons by looking at his lessons and tweaking them using notes that he made himself from the year before. I find this article very interesting. I also think that it is not everybody’s destiny or desire to become an expert because becoming an expert seems to require that that is all you care about to some extent so you can’t be an expert teacher and have a family. Maybe being a great teacher is good enough for me cause all of the really great teachers I know are single or have become divorced.

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  7. LETICIA CALLELA AUSTIN says:

    An expert is made with deliberate practice of their craft, time spent on their practice, and coaching/mentoring by other experts. Many people strongly believe that experts are born. This is simply not true! Experts take their time and spend HOURS poring over details that help them practice. They also spend an incredible amount of time seeking out advice and mentorship from others. I look at someone like my father who is an expert cook. He did not start out this way. In fact, my father began working at the age of six in the fields of Jalisco. However, when he came to the United States, he had to find work in the city. He was not an expert at cooking and when he landed his first job as a dishwasher, he befriended the line cooks, asking them questions about how to chop vegetables and make basic dishes. Soon, the cooks were asking him to help prep and he showed them that he was eager to learn. He moved up the ranks and was asked to move to another restaurant where he became sous chef. He will never tell you that he has mastered cooking. However, I know that he surrounds himself with other mentors and mentees at his job and is always looking at ways to improve his craft.

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  8. Irineo Yanez says:

    An expert is made with deliberate practice, over time, and with the right coaching. While many people believe that experts are born, this is not true, experts are made. I am a professional musician on the weekends and I know many experts in the music field. The top experts, all practice deliberately. They practice with a purpose. That is to say, they tackle passages that are difficult to perform and focus deliberately on such sections. They invest the time and grow over time. They practice on a regular consistent basis investing their time and do it for years and years. They also look to teachers for coaching and challenge.

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  9. Brenda Casanova says:

    The article shows that experts are not born they are made through deliberate and intentional practice. Experts develop their crafts over long periods of time and often have the help from mentors and other experts who have already developed their craft. The article also highlights that experts often learn from painful self examination and self reflection in order to keep challenging themselves. One expert that I can think of has been working on their craft for over thirty years. They are constantly adapting to the times, practicing their skill set, trying new things, and overall perfecting their craft. They are also passionate about what they do and what to succeed so much that they are always reinventing the ways that they practice what they do.

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  10. M. Seestedt says:

    After reading the article, discuss how “experts” are made in the comments section below. Think about a specific “expert” and describe how you think he or she developed that particular skill or ability.

    The Making of an Expert through research suggests that “outstanding performance is the product of years of deliberate practice and coaching, not of any innate talent or skill.” According to K. Anders Ericsson, Michael J. Prietula, and Edward T. Cokely an expert’s “First, performance is consistently superior to that of the expert’s peers. Second, real expertise produces concrete results. Finally, true expertise can be replicated and measured in the lab.”

    From this research, when I think of a person in my life that is an expert in their field, I think of my husband. My husband is in the office furniture industry. He excels at his job and receives many praises and job offers from big companies like Netflix, Southern California Edison, SpaceX, and many other well known businesses.

    He started at a very young age of 18 in this field and has been in this industry for 25 years now.
    In the beginning of his career he did not do to well and got fired from a few jobs. However, he didn’t let that deter him and he persisted at getting better. He sought mentors in the field and went to trainings to help improve his skills. It took him lots of practice and time but he is doing extremely well at what he does.

    He is very knowledgeable in office products, pricing and working with measurements. He can mentally let a client what will work in a space and what the client can purchase within their budget. When his workers call him with issues at a job site, he quickly comes up with solutions. Even though he is a project manager he’s not afraid to get in an office space and pick up tools to get a job done or to show his workers what they need to do.

    He has come a long way in this industry but it tool lots of time, practice, and seeking out help through mentors and training.

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  11. ISELA DE LA TORRE says:

    According to this article experts are made by engaging in “deliberate” practice, an investment of time, a well-informed coach, and the belief that you can develop expertise. I like that this article disproves the myth of natural born geniuses, or experts. It lends hope to the possibility that anyone can become an expert given the conditions discussed. It also presents a challenge because it requires a level of privilege and access to those necessary components that only a few may have access to. As a teacher, I hope to be able to provide the coaching element to my students to the best of my ability, and it’s my goal to also teach them to believe that they have the power to become experts. I can guide them with the deliberate practice, and I hope they will extend it beyond their time with me.

    When I think of an expert, my Mother comes to mind. She had this special talent to make the most delicious salsas. She learned from her Mother and as she became skilled with those traditional recipes, she became an expert at making so many other varieties. She invested a lot of time and she practiced over and over again, asking us for our opinions. She would go back and make changes until she created a new and different salsa that we all thought was amazing. I saw her do this all of my life and in my eyes she was an expert at her craft, because she worked at it and consciously responded to feedback, and returned to her kitchen lab to perfect her recipes. She was a master and an expert, because of her deliberate practice, her investment of time, and her coaching by her own Mother.

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  12. Sonya Kinsey says:

    According to the article, Anders Ericsson, Michael Prietula, and Edward Cokely experts are made by doing the following: practicing intensively, deliberate practice, studied with devoted teachers, and had enthusiastically support by their families throughout their developing years.

    In observing a friend, who started as a teacher and became a leader as a mentor teacher.He then became a leader as a math coach, Next, he became a leader as a Assistant Principal. Currently, he is a leader as a Principal. As he progressed to each level in his career, he exhibited those qualities discussed in the article. He was always practicing intensively-deliberately practicing leadership skills, studied with devoted mentors, and had great family and friend support throughout. These skills led him to be successful and an expert in leadership skills.

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  13. Sophia Kang says:

    Experts practiced deliberately and intensely that focused beyond the individual’s level of competence and comfort. In this process, you will need to know how to coach yourself so that your performance is consistently superior to that of your peers and produces concrete results that can be replicated in the lab.

    What stood out to me in this reading is that only once people become comfortable enough with the activity can they start to focus on uncharted territory. For example, in the classroom, if the student is not used to writing essays, he/she won’t improve by in-class writing time. Instead, the student will need to first become comfortable with the act of writing.

    After becoming comfortable with an activity, perfect practice makes perfect. If I think about the actors, musicians, and artists who developed their skills, they say something similar to what the article suggests. Similar to Benjamin Franklin, they study role models or exceptional work that they looked up to and then attempted to replicate them by producing something similar to the prototype. Franklin’s case was unique because he also tried to reconstruct the speeches he was inspired by from memory. Then he would also tweak the language and play around with he original.

    The student must also seek out a mentor who has already been in the position that they strive after–a mentor who is capable of giving constructive feedback, even if it is painful, but not too fast out of the Zone of Proximal Development. One of my favorite quotes was that improving the skills you already have and extending the reach and range of your skills.” It is important to visualize how they will complete each step of the activity and then also recognize the areas they need to improve on. If you think through each step of the skill, you can better pinpoint the areas where you went wrong and improve on that. Deliberate practice over unfocused repetitive practice.

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  14. Rick G says:

    As a golfer who has struggled to improve my game for several years, I am struck by golfing-great Sam Snead’s comments about his apparent ease, which was from his point of view was due to the enormous amount of practice he made himself do when he was a child. Two observations: one, his example is strong evidence to the points made here about the need for experts in training to be highly motivated, to develop critical self-monitoring tools, and lastly to practice until it hurts; secondly, however, my own experience as a “golfer who learned as an adult” challenges the claim that anyone can learn a skill given the necessary elements that I referred to about Sam Snead’s example. After countless hours of practice numerous lessons, and the utilization of self monitoring tools, I know that I am at a significant disadvantage not having taken up the game as a child. I seriously doubt that under any circumstances or any amount of practice that I could ever become a Sam Snead. Therefore, with this realization that I will be limited and not the expert that I wish I could be, I find that I must be content with making small improvements slowly over a period of time. Luckily I am happy to do so. But I think that articles like these can be misleading because of the rather sweeping claims it makes.

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  15. Susan Enman says:

    After reading the article, discuss how “experts” are made in the comments section below. Think about a specific “expert” and describe how you think he or she developed that particular skill or ability.

    In the above mentioned article there are several components involved in ‘making and expert’. The most important components involved deliberate practice and having a mentor. Deliberate practice was more than just time. It is focused time many times on the same skill. The article used the example of a professional golfer who practices the same swing over and over again from the same point on the green. This person is different that the person who just wants to play casual golf. They will practice the skill to the point that they are able to play a game. The suggestion was at least 2 hours a day, and knowing that practicing all day can produce a diminishing return. They used an example of a surgeon who not only has a successful outcome, but also goes back to study any unexpected events that may have occurred during the surgery.

    Having a mentor is essential for encouragement a baseline skill level, and a sounding board. Some one who is currently an expert to push you through challenges and help you process your methods.

    When I think of an example of an ‘expert’ , I think of Rocky. He was always training and always challenging himself to get better. When he lost a fight he had to understand why. The training was deliberate, and he had wonderful mentors, one of which was an ex-prize fighter. As the article suggests, they had a string of prior successes.

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  16. Noe Solares says:

    This article discussed an incident were wine experts were blindfolded to compare California and French wines. The surprise was not that the California wines were better than the French wines. The real surprised was that the experts came up with the same conclusions about the wines as ordinary wine drinkers. Like those wine tasting experts, not all experts are really experts. Practice makes perfect, but not just any kind of practice. Drinking a lot of wine will not make me an expert in wine tasting. We need deliberate practice to achieve a level of expertise. So to become an expert we need a lot of practice and lot of patience because it takes time to become an expert. When I look at our English learners for example, we notice there is a big improvement that happens in a short period of time at the beginning levels. But as the students move up in the English language development, we notice that it take a long time for students to become proficient in English. I also noticed that there are some English learners that acquire the language quickly and making an effort to become proficient, while others make very little progress. I noticed that the language acquisition has correlation with the success of the students in other academic areas.

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  17. Angelique McNiff says:

    In “The Making of an Expert” the concept discussed is that 10,000 hours of deliberate effort to improve (more for elite musicians) is what it takes to potentially become an expert. It does not take this long to improve, as is discussed in the article when it discusses beginning golfers, but it does take a concentrated effort to keep honing your skills and not simply continuing to perform at taks you know you already can do. In my life, I read articles on gardening techniques and then apply them to my organic garden to test them out; some work and some fail but to become more of an expert on the topic of organic gardening I must see why they succeeded and why the failed through repeated trials. One expert who has done such is Charles Dowding, the famous expert on No Dig Gardening: https://www.charlesdowding.co.uk/. He has worked for many years to perfect his method: enriching the soil through continued layered applications of organic compost and not digging into the soil and disrupting the fragile biodiverse life. When he became a leader in the field he did not simply continue to do what he was doing. He began posting videos to train others. What is most interesting is he discusses failures and setbacks, often showing them in the videos. He then discusses why he thinks things turned out thus and he discusses his suppositions on how to fix it. Most importantly, the next year, the next growth cycle, he refers back to these setbacks and discusses how he is going to try to fix the problem this year; this helps his audience because if Mr. Dowding has setbacks and tries to fix them, the expert has setbacks and fixes them, then we the students of his methodology realize that we too will have setbacks and that we too can fix them. He also discusses his current research into the topics of biodiversity and the importance of ecosystems. He has developed his skills by trying to solve problems and by continued self-education.

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  18. Jenny Burman says:

    Ericsson, Prietula and Cokely say, “You need a particular kind of practice—deliberate practice—to develop expertise. When most people practice, they focus on the things they already know how to do. Deliberate practice is different. It entails considerable, specific, and sustained efforts to do something you can’t do well—or even at all.” My friend Kristian, an expert at social skills, (in fact we call him our social coordinator), is always practicing his skills. His jobs require him to work in challenging situations. He is not just practicing the easy parts of socialization, he is working on the skills that are he can’t do well.

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  19. STEPHANIE MIRANDA says:

    Discuss how “experts” are made in the comments section below. Think about a specific “expert” and describe how you think he or she developed that particular skill or ability.

    Experts are made by three main components: deliberate practice, support, and good teachers. Deliberate practice requires concentration, analyzing, and thinking through a process, then reflecting on errors or successes. Support is often provided by the people around you, giving you the time, access, and opportunity to become an expert. Lastly, good teachers are necessary to give the learner guidance.

    I think of Ronda Rousey, the former and first UFC Women’s Bantamweight Champion and the first to win a bronze medal in women’s judo in the Olympics. Her mother was a judo champion herself and was one of Ronda’s trainers from an early age. Ronda shocked the world with her ability and seemed unstoppable for years, and yet, support teachers, and deliberate practice contributed to her expertise in MMA and judo. She spent thousands of hours in training.

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  20. Maria E. Guzman says:

    “Consistently and overwhelmingly the evidence showed that experts are always made, not born”. I agree with this part of the article because it places value on effort and practice. I also learned that in order to become an expert, one needs to have “DELIBERATE PRACTICE”. It’s one thing to practice over and over what is comfortable to us, but deliberate practice is when you do something or practice doing something that is actually hard for you.

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  21. Allison Conant says:

    Experts are knowledgable in many areas of their craft. They operate with confidence and take “failure” as a matter of course. They apply what they know to new situations and expect new outcomes. They need to be lifelong learners because they know that expertise has to allow for growth. My first thought was with the climbers who taught me how to climb — they had a deep knowledge of the craft, the gear, their surroundings — but they never got stuck in a method because they knew that the situations we were climbing in were always different. They didn’t take things for granted. They truly enjoyed what they were doing and wanted to share their craft and knowledge as well. They continued to be dynamic, thoughtful learners.

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  22. Stefnie Evans says:

    When I think of someone I believe to be an expert, I think of someone really skilled in their craft. I consider Bill Gates an expert in business. He was not bogged down by any image of what society said a successful business man would look like, and come from. He dropped out of school with a skill and an idea, and Microsoft was born. In the early days he worked long and hard hours to develop his concept, and he demanded the same effort and work ethic from his initial partners.
    From page 3 of the article, it states, “Research across domains shows that it is only by working at what you can’t do that you turn into the expert you want to become.” I believe that this was his philosophy, he didn’t shy away from difficult things when others said it was impossible.

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  23. AmberK says:

    The Golden State Warriors Steph Curry is, to me, and expert shooter. I’ve read articles about how he became such a sharp shooter, and practices he did growing up and continue to do today mirror some of the practices in the article.
    1. 11-year-old Steph would regularly compete against other NBA players in H-O-R-S-E competitions during practice and would consistently win. His dad was his mentor growing up and playing against higher ability players can give a person an edge to want to do better.
    2. Curry was consistently the hardest-working player at Davidson and had a “fire that raged within him.”
    3. Curry is now 6’3″, he was a late-bloomer and before he grew he reportedly used to shoot a sort of flick shot that he released from his chest. As his competition got bigger and better, Curry changed his shooting form so that his release point was above his head. He had to re-learn how to shoot the ball.
    4. Curry works diligently on his ball-handling so he can use his dribbling to create shots for himself.
    5. He practices a combination of fundamental and extremely detailed footwork that allows him to move, get into rhythm, and be ready to shoot easily and quickly.
    6. Steph practices, practices, practices…does a shooting drill in which he takes 10 shots from five different locations on the three-point line, going back and forth until he takes 100.

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  24. Shareen Gochoel says:

    “Experts” are made with a few necessary ingredients. It takes deliberate practice, a lot of time, mentors and/or teachers. I liked the quote that the development of genuine expertise requires struggle, sacrifice, and honest, often painful self-assessment. I really enjoyed this article and will share what I have learned from it with my students.

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  25. Michael Dang says:

    Experts are made through deliberate practice of ideas and skills that you cannot do well or at all. This is because intuition and automation has not fully set in yet. It also requires individuals to think deliberately making forecasts and analyzing different results to improve upon. Two hours a day or ten hours a week of deliberate practice can keep seasoned professionals up to task with new experts on certain skills.

    One expert that comes to mind is comedian Stephen Colbert. It probably took a lot of practice and many failures of public performance that helped him grow to the performer he is today. Sometimes it’s easy to look at accomplished figures and attribute their success to innate talent when often it’s countless hours of unseen work put in to get to where they are today.

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  26. Jennifer Bower says:

    “One thing emerges very clearly from Bloom’s work: All the superb performers he investigated had practiced intensively, had studied with devoted teachers, and had been supported enthusiastically by their families throughout their developing years. Later research building on Bloom’s pioneering study revealed that the amount and quality of practice were key factors in the level of expertise people achieved.” We must remember that many of our students lack the external supports such as devoted teachers and supportive families…:(

    Becoming an expert takes time and deliberate practice. One of the best instructional leaders I met took time in the classroom (over a decade) to improve their own instructional skills. This school site leader also took on the challenge of academic counseling. Time and boots in the field did not make this administrator perfect but made this administrator more connectable and approachable to staff seeking help themselves. Classroom teachers appreciate an administrative leader who is not only charismatic and motivational but empathetic and supportive, understanding the realities of public educaton having gone through the system themselves.

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  27. C Bakewell says:

    According to the article, The Making of an Expert, B. Bloom’s research showed the three things high performers, or experts, had in common at an early age were intensive (deliberate) practice, devoted teachers, and a supportive family. The article explains deliberate practice (practicing the things that you don’t already do well) as a component to becoming an expert. One has to improve the skills one already has, and in addition, improve the “reach and range” of one’s skills to become an expert-and that could take many years.

    I was thinking about Michael Jackson as an expert musician and entertainer. His father Joe who had musical talent tried to make it as a professional musician in his young adult life, and Michael’s mother, Katherine was a pianist and a singer. Michael grew up with the noted practice, devoted teachers, and supportive family, to become the best-selling musical artist and globally popular and talented entertainer.

    I think there is something to be said about experts who have a genetic gift. Many expert athletes have parents that excelled athletically. Mozart’s father was a composer. Michael Jackson had a combination of talent and grooming, not to mention desire, to become the musical phenomenon and expert that he was. I believe there has to be internal motivation combined with talent and training to become an expert. I don’t think it comes solely from outside influence.

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  28. Shauna Segal says:

    An expert I have known personally is a bassoonist for the LA Opera. Years ago he commented that to get to the level he had achieved it was about practice, lots and lots of practice. Even so, as the article mentions in relation to coaching, the practice must be of a high quality. This relates to our students and the advice about limiting homework practice problems because we don’t want to get into a situation in which students are reinforcing an ineffective procedure or practice. Recently I have become interested in Jo Boaler’s idea about using a reflection piece as homework. This type of open-ended activity allows students to do the work of differentiating their homework themselves. Also, if the area of expertise is leadership, the first step is more about putting together a team of experts (like in a super-hero movie such as Wonder Woman). Even here practice enhances our ability to recognize different types of expertise in colleagues or students while the leader focuses on the big picture.

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  29. Lucrecia Apanay says:

    One of the examples given in the article that a genius is made, not born, is Mozart. Mozart was an indisputable musical genius, whose training started before he was four years old; in addition, his father was a famous music teacher and composer, thus proving that Mozart was not born an expert but became one.

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  30. David Garringer says:

    I do believe that maybe limited correlation between IQ and expert performance. I also believe that real expertise must past the three tests: 1. it must lead to performance that consistently superior to that of the expert peers, 2. real expertise produces concrete results 3. true expertise can be replicated and measured in the lab. Of all of the items, item 3 is probably the most difficult to quantify.

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  31. Alison Gillis says:

    Experts are made through deliberate practice, dedication, and with the help of dedicated and supportive mentors, teachers, an coaches. In order to become an expert you must have all three aspects. To become an expert in something you need to understand that you will be sacrificing a ton of time, effort, and energy. One expert in my life is my grandma. She has been sewing her entire life and can pretty much sew anything at this point. She still takes classes, reads magazines to learn new things, and is always sewing something to keep her skills. Even though she has been doing it for so long she still makes mistakes every now and again. I think this proves that even experts are not perfect, they are are just really good at what they do.

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  32. I once had the privilege of hearing Ray Bradbury speak. He described how, from his early teens, he wrote with the goal of being published. To that end, he determined where he had the best chances of being published and wrote the kinds of stories that would appeal to those markets, generally low-paying pulp magazines. When he had success in those markets, he moved on to higher-paying, more prestigious magazines and eventually to book publishers. Bradbury described how he had been told when he was starting out that he would have to write about a million words before he would be a successful writer. When he did become successful, he realized that he had indeed written about a million words. This reinforces the notion that intense practice makes an expert. Also, in addition to putting in the time and practice to become an expert at his discipline, Bradbury also had specific, calculated goals that encouraged and rewarded growth at each step.

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  33. Sonya Cole says:

    To become an expert in any arena, it takes practice, dedication and support. Anyone can become experts with all three of these things. This is supported by Bloom’s work that indicates, “experts are always made, not born.” For example, my niece plays professional basketball overseas. Being 5’4″ and weighing 130 pounds, she even overcame the indicators that Bloom found evident in sports, “height, and body size.” How did she get there? She began training around the 3rd grade. Her practices were as simple as dribbling in the kitchen for 30 minutes on each hand, to getting to her high school gym, where her father works, at 6:00 in the morning putting up shots and practicing drills. In addition, her parents traveled 45 minutes one way to AAU basketball practice for years. She was dedicated, put in the time, and had the support of her family to help her dreams become a reality.

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  34. Ronald Arreola says:

    How are “experts” made? The old adage, practice makes perfect comes to mind. But as the article pointed out one needs to have deliberate practice. There are people who play a sport several hours a day that do not become better simply because they repeat the thing that is easiest for them. A couple of sporting examples. Kids grow up shooting a two handed chest shot basically because they are too weak to shoot ten feet up and some distance away with one hand (and the other hand acting as a guide). As they get older and stronger they still continue with the two handed chest shot because it is easier than learning to shoot with the one hand. Similarly, people who play tennis will “dink” the ball over on a second serve rather than learning a topspin serve which is accurate and prevents the opponent from attacking, when it is done correctly. They don’t want to try a topspin serve because it is totally different and until it is mastered the ball is going everywhere.
    Coaching, as the article pointed, out is beneficial in acquiring expertise. They are able to pass on knowledge that they acquired from their own experience or from observing others. They are able to give constructive advice and feedback. You see that with professional tennis players. The best players in the world have coaches that are constantly critiquing their play. Now they have video that can break down their swings, looking for any minor imperfection.
    The one problem I had with the article was with the investment of time. I think everyone can agree that you need to invest time to become an expert. The article also said, “but you have to start early.”
    The article implies that in most cases to become an expert you must start early. So what hope is there in becoming an expert for those who do not have the means or “opportunities to engage in deliberate practice?” It is beneficial in many cases to start early but I don’t think you cannot become an expert if one does not start early.

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  35. Liam says:

    The authors’s most valuable points is wrapped up succinctly: “All the superb performers he investigated had practiced intensively, had studied with devoted teachers, and had been supported enthusiastically by their families throughout their developing years.” Experts are only experts as a result of their incredibly diligent academic work, the support of their instructors, and the emotional validation of those important to them. Luckily, we as teachers, are in a position to offer all three of these (albeit only for a limited amount of time). However, we have the chance to give students the foundational skills necessary to pursue mastery and understanding what this pursuit looks like. Teaching students mastery skills will allow them to eventually develop expertise.

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  36. KRISTY LEE says:

    Experts are made, not born. They invest as much time as they need not only practicing deliberately in the areas they can’t do well or at all, but also thinking deliberately on how to accomplish those goals. They also work with different mentors or coaches at different stages of their development who can give them critical feedback to improve their skills.

    The experts that I think about are the expert level or Olympic level archers who I used to see at a local park. While those who came to practice on their own improved to a certain level, those who were regularly coached were able to improve to the expert level because they were coached and critiqued on their form and mental game, which improved their shots and scores.

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  37. Mersedeh Vahdat says:

    People become an export when they fine their passion and purpose in life. It is a calling to develop particular skill or ability; and think deliberately to eliminate any challenges or barriers. it is a life long learning and systematic training and daily practice. it is a life long dedication to your chosen achievement and growth. An expert has a strong heart, patient, and great tolerance for pain and failure. An export knows that there will be struggle, sacrifice, on-going loving assessment of self, and investment of time. It is extremely important to have a well-informed coach to guide you and help you to become your own coach in life.

    Carol Dweck is an expert in the field of education and psychology due to her relentless desire to learn about human behavior and improving our existing education system. She enjoyed learning new things; and she devoted her life to it. Looking her at early years and personal life, one notices her dedication to the field of social psychology and developmental psychology. She excelled in school, was observant, in tune with her environment, noticed unfair practices and treatment of students with less IQ, and realized that every student wants to succeed. This insight and intuition ignite her motivation to pursue the goal of questioning why people do what they do; and most importantly made her happy through providing service to others. carol leading a purposeful life and encouraging others to find their own passions.

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  38. Elizabeth Onyango says:

    Based on the one expert I have often looked up to and admired over the years, experts are not born, but improve at their skill though patient practice and surrounded by a supportive team. Michael Jordan became one of the best basketball players of this era through incessant practice daily. His parent encouraged him as he continued to practice the three point shot day in, day out.He would shoot 1,000 shots in the morning only to go back and continue in the evening, under the supervision of his father.

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  39. Taryn K says:

    After reading the article, discuss how “experts” are made in the comments section below. Think about a specific “expert” and describe how you think he or she developed that particular skill or ability.

    I enjoyed reading this article because it discusses how experts are made, not born. To become an expert in something requires practice and support from other. For example, I had a friend who wanted to become a professional photographer. She had to first practice taking various pictures in various lightings, etc. It also required support from her family, classmates in her arts college, and friends in order to achieve expertise. She used her friends and family as “models” or test shots in order to achieve the look she wanted for a photo. I think these are the two key qualities to becoming an expert in anything; practice and support.

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  40. Ronel Wright says:

    Discuss how “experts” are made. Think about a specific “expert” and describe how you think he or she developed that particular skill or ability:

    From the article: “The development of genuine expertise requires struggle, sacrifice, and honest, often painful self-assessment. There are no shortcuts. It will take you at least a decade to achieve expertise, and you will need to invest that time wisely, by engaging in “deliberate” practice—practice that focuses on tasks beyond your current level of competence and comfort. You will need a well- informed coach not only to guide you through deliberate practice but also to help you learn how to coach yourself.”

    In other words, becoming an expert requires a lot of time, a lot of hard work throughout that long time, and a focus on improving your weakest skills as well as the ones in which you already have expertise. You will require others to help you by coaching, and their job will be to eventually release you to your inner coach.

    One expert who easily comes to mind is NBA player LeBron James. LeBron first started playing basketball at age 9. He played both football and basketball through his junior year in high school, so he was getting not only practice in one sport, but also advancing his footwork as a wide receiver. He gave up football after an injury. LeBron tried to get into the 2002 NBA draft was was turned down because he had not yet finished high school. He did become eligible for the 2003 draft, and his hard work up through that point led him to be the first person selected in the draft. Today, at age 33, LeBron is still regarded as the best current NBA player and likely will go down as one of the top players of all time. He just qualified for his 8th consecutive trip to the NBA finals, a feat that has been matched or exceeded by only a handful of other players. He attributes his continued high performance level to his bodily conditioning and his practice. He does have his own trainers and nutrition consultants. Thus, LeBron James is a model of the development of an expert.

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  41. Ashley M. says:

    After reading the article, I learned that “experts” can be anyone that takes the time and practice to become one. “Experts” are not born into what they do, but they have the drive to become the best in their field. A few experts that I know of are friends that run marathons. They train and run miles and miles to become better at running. Some have a wealth of experience with how to overcome the last mile and how to recover. This is something that anyone can become an expert at and work hard to achieve their goal.

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  42. Lin Kuang says:

    As Blooms indicated ” experts are always made, not born.” which tells us , as educators , our jobs are to create all these experts according to their needs and styles by building and establishing their learning process or routines in the classroom. My friend is running a dancing school herself. As a successful dancer and business owner, she was supposed to seek some potential dancers to be trained in her studio Usually, they have certain criteria for those participating candidates, body shape, musical talents, or others. One day, there’s a girl was brought into her studio, she was as common as other girl, many teachers refused to take her in, but my friend found some specialty in her performance and kept her. It turned out this little girl is a potential dancer with determined mind. She practice very hard and exceeded in the studio, three years later she earned all titles as a young dancer. This is a good example to convince me that we are those experts’ trainers. As Confucius mentioned, ” Everything is so beautiful, but everyone sees it.”

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  43. Kerry Alvord says:

    Bloom did research studying elite performers in various fields. He found that the expert performers he investigated had practiced intensively, had studied with devoted teachers, and had been supported enthusiastically by their families throughout their developing years. “All of the superb performers…had practiced intensively, had studied with devoted teachers, and had been supported enthusiastically by their families…” The evidence from the study showed that “experts are always made, not born.” This continues to show the importance of having a growth mindset. To become an expert, the idea of deliberate practice was introduced. Deliberate practice is different. It entails considerable, specific, and sustained efforts to do something you can’t do well—or even at all. Although there are experts in many fields, the expert I thought about is one of the teacher’s at my school. I really respect her teaching practices and her continual desire to grow and improve her skills. She teaches an upper grade and, therefore, has more than 30 students in her class. However, she gets to know each and every student so well. She learns what makes them tick and how they best learn, and how to guide them to be the best they can be. This teacher works so hard to come up with ways to beast teach to each student’s learning style. She keeps the lessons engaging and interesting, and is constantly researching and reading and trying new things to improve her practice. I feel that her perseverance, hard work, continued research and refining of her skills, and her desire to provide a nurturing caring environment is what helped her to become and expert.

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  44. Karen Harris says:

    He article explains that it takes time to become an expert rather than just talent and resources. I know that my daughter is an expert tennis player who stated as a very young child. Her father was a college coach and personal instructor for many clients. She was with him at many lessons and was required to practice on specific skills. She attended special summer programs with other instructors and was often given feedback and time to work on her goals. She also competed regularly on high school and college teams. As a parent I also spent time with her as she practiced, played in tournaments and video taped her for self-improvement. She can now teach and mentor others and continues to seek out superior players to challenge herself.

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  45. Ruthanne Contreras says:

    The article explains that experts are made, which means everyone can become an expert. It takes targeted practice and support from others. The article states that “all superb performers he investigated had practiced intensively, had studied with devoted teachers, and had been supported enthusiastically by their families throughout their developing years.” I friend of mine is considered an expert writing. He has devoted his time to reading and writing. He studied journalism. Growing up, his family supported him in his love for reading and writing. He is a talented writer in journalism, poetry, story writing, and movie scripts. People go to him for help with writing, editing, etc. He is always writing something on his computer.

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  46. NORMA GUERRERO says:

    The article “The Making of an Expert” states that “New research shows that outstanding performance is the product of years of deliberate practice and coaching, not of any innate talent or skill.” The article also mentions some of the key components to becoming an expert in any field: devotion, daily practice, and family participation. I do agree that that daily practice and devotion are probably the most important factors to become an expert in anything we want to accomplish. But the desire to become an expert must come from oneself; So practice will be voluntary and effective.

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  47. Stephanie R Comfort says:

    After reading the article, discuss how “experts” are made in the comments section below. Think about a specific “expert” and describe how you think he or she developed that particular skill or ability.

    According to the article, experts are made when they can pass a series of tests concerning their skill the most important one being, they are able to show clear and consistent successful results. When I think of this, I think of my friend who is a math teacher. Yes, she has been teaching a long time, and yes she is very educated, however, she is an expert because for years she has consistently shown high levels of achievement in her students across all learning types and backgrounds.

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  48. Kathryn M Reiter says:

    “Deliberate practice is different. It entails considerable, specific, and sustained efforts to do something you can’t do well—or even at all.”
    This quote resonated with me because practicing something you don’t know how to do is frustrating. With a growth mindset, though, one would persevere and end up becoming skilled at the task at hand.

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  49. Nancy Jinon says:

    In the “The Making of an Expert” the authors make a claim that experts are not born but made. This means that every novice could potentially become an expert if he or she follows three specific steps. The authors explain” All superb performers he investigated had practiced intensively, had studied with devoted teachers, and had been supported enthusiastically by their families throughout their developing years.” This means that a persons potential to become an expert is highly dependent on the support they will receive by those around them. The article continues ” Later research building on Bloom’s pioneering study revealed that the amount and quality of practice were key factors in the level of expertise people archived.” This shows that expertise comes from time spent on practice that is targeted and surgical about what skill needs to be mastered. Practice for practice sake is not enough for novices to gain expertise.
    One of my peers is an expert in mathematics. This person has been teaching well over ten years and is always trying to learn from others. This teacher definitely had supported parents at home who cultivated a love of math and science. This teacher is always surrounded by a positive group of educators that respect him and allow him to lead the group in discussions about mathematics. He also teaches in a middle school and in an adult setting which means he has an array of expertise of the content. This teacher with the help of his parents, colleges and teaching positions has become an expert over time rather than because of his genetic makeup.

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